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ما مراحل النشيد الإسلامي؟

ما هي مراحل النشيد الإسلامي؟

( النظرية الزكوانية في مراحل النشيد )

هذه نظرية تندرج ضمن النظريات العامة، التي تعبر عن رأي أو مجموعة آراء قابلة للصحة والخطأ، وهي تحاول تفسير المراحل التي مر بها النشيد الإسلامي أو الفن الملتزم، حتى أوان كتابة هاته السطور.

١. المرحلة الأولى: كانت الأناشيد عبارة عن تسجيلات بدائية عبر الحفلات المباشرة أو في أماكن أشبه ما تكون بالسراديب أو المنزوية جنب مكان ما أو تحته، وكانت بلاد الشام هي المصدر الأوفر لهذه المرحلة، قبل أن تلتحق بها دول من الخليج العربي كالبحرين والكويت خاصة في مرحلة لاحقة. اتسمت قصائد الأناشيد في هذه المرحلة بالجزالة وعمق الألفاظ والمفردات البليغة، وكثيرا ما كانت مقرونة بالموالات التي كانت تعد قطعة رئيسة من الأناشيد، واقتصر الإنشاد على الفصيح منها، ومثل الجهاد الموضوع الأبرز الذي تناولته الأناشيد؛ انعكاسا لواقع الأمة التي كانت ترزح تحت الاستعمار والتخلف، وكانت الأناشيد تميل للتطويل أو الطول في مقاطعها المنشدة. أبرز من مثل هذه الحقبة: المنشد أبو دجانة.

٢. المرحلة الثانية: اتسع نطاق الأناشيد ليمتد ويصل جهة الخليج العربي، حيث مثلت الكويت ولحقتها المملكة العربية السعودية الوجه البارز الجديد، الذي أخذ زمام المبادرة لإصدار الأناشيد. استمرت مواضيع الأناشيد محصورة ضمن نطاق الجهاد والبكاء على حال الأمة؛ نظرا لاستمرار الوضع الذي كانت تمر به، كما استمرت في هذه الحقبة خصائص الأناشيد في المرحلة السالفة، ولكن مع تطور ملحوظ في مستوى التسجيلات الصوتية، وكذلك شاع سبق الأناشيد بمقدمات تمهيدية كانت تتسم بالطول أحيانا، خاصة عند منشدي المملكة. كانت هذه المرحلة طويلة نسبيا، وأبرز من مثلها: محمد الحسيان من دولة الكويت، وأبو عبدالملك وأصحابه من المملكة العربية السعودية.

٣. المرحلة الثالثة: برز نمو واضح في ظهور منشدين جدد، أصبحوا فيما بعد نجوما ورموزا لافتة للإنشاد فيما بعد، إضافة لمن سبقهم في المرحلة الثانية، أبرزهم أسامة الصافي من الإمارات وعادل الكندري وإبراهيم السعيد من الكويت ومحمد العزاوي من العراق، واصطبغت أناشيدهم بالصبغة الجهادية كسمة غالبة ثابتة، مع تنويع طفيف في مواضيع أخرى جديدة.

٤. المرحلة الرابعة: مع تمدن الحياة العصرية وبداية عهد السرعة، ومع التشديد العالمي على الإرهاب انخفضت نزعة المواضيع الجهادية في الأناشيد، وأصبحت المواضيع الدينية العامة هي السائدة وجرى الإنشاد لمواضيع جديدة، كما ظهر تطور كبير في عمليات الهندسة والتوزيع، وأصبحت القصائد سهلة بمعان وألفاظ بسيطة، وازداد الاعتماد على قصائد شعراء معاصرين، كم كثر الإنشاد للشعر النبطي، وأصبحت الأناشيد ذات طول متوسط، كما بدأ الاهتمام بالزخارف والشكليات، في هذه المرحلة بدأ ظهور صور المنشدين على أغلفة الألبومات بشكل ثابت وعصري أوسع، وبرزت شركات محترفة بتسويق محترف، واعتلى الإيقاع الظاهرة الفنية، صاحبه انخفاض في حضور الموالات إن لم يكن انعدمت، وفي هذه المرحلة برزت قنوات ومواقع إنشادية متخصصة وبارزة. أبرز ما مثل هذه المرحلة: ألبوما مولاي وأشرقي لمحمد الحسيان وإبراهيم السعيد

٥. الفترة الذهبية الأولى: في هذه المرحلة استمر تصاعد الإنشاد وبروزه وتطوره بشكل سريع وصارخ، وأصبح ينافس الغناء في جودة الإنتاج الفني والجمهور المتابع له، وأصبح يحتل المشاهد الحكومية والإعلامية، من خلال مقدمات البرامج التلفزيونية، والاحتفالات الرسمية. مثلت هذي المرحلة ذروة الاهتمام والإبداع في الخلفيات والإيقاع، وشاع استخدام المؤثرات البشرية الطبيعية، كما صاحبها ظهور العديد من المسابقات الإنشادية الكبيرة والمدعومة من قبل بعض القنوات. بدأت ثقافة المقامات بالانتشار، وازداد بروز المنشدين عبر الفيديو كليبات، وشهدت هذه الفترة تحول مغنين لعالم النشيد.

٦. الفترة الذهبية الثانية: واصل الإنشاد صعوده لأعلى الهرم، وتواصل ظهور الكم الهائل من المنشدين، حتى أصبحوا كثرة كثيرة في المجتمع. في هذه المرحلة بدأ استخدام البعض للموسيقى، وظهر معه جدل الحل والحرمة، كما شهدت استمرار حضور النشيد بالمحافل الرسمية، وكان الإنتاج الفني وفيرا بكثرة نتيجة انخراط الكثيرين وبروزهم كمنشدين جدد. خلال ثنايا هذه المرحلة برز فن الشيلات منافسًا قويًا للإنشاد، ولكن لم يدم ذلك التنافس حتى تراجع فن الشيلات.

٧. المرحلة السابعة: مع ظهور التكنولوجيا وتطور وسائل الإنتاج أصاب الإنشاد حالة من التراجع في نشاطه بسبب غياب الجدوى المالية للعمل الفني، نتيجة قدرة الجمهور على الاستماع للجديد دون الحاجة للشراء، مما جعل الإنشاد مقتصراً على أناشيد فردية أو للمناسبات. خلال هذه المرحلة نشأت ظاهرة بروز نجوم جدد ثم غيابهم، كما ضعف نشاط المنشدين القدامى والمعروفين، ومثلت فترة حرجة لاستمرارية النشيد وتحدي الوضع الراهن، في محاولة لإيجاد التوازن بين الإنتاج الفني والمردود المالي. استمر النشيد في حضوره الجيد بالمحافل المختلفة بالعموم، وعمد بعض المنشدين لتقليل الجودة في أعمالهم؛ نتيجة علو التكلفة مقارنة بالمردود المادي.

8 . مرحلة الركود: قلة الجديد، شيوع التقليد وإنشاد القديم من الأناشيد،

المستقبل: سيواصل النشيد بروزه على مستوى متذبذب أو متوسط، وسيكون مواصلته للنشاط متنوعا، بين من يستخدم الموسيقى أو الإيقاع أو بدونهما – وهو سيكون الأقل مقارنة بنظيريه -، وستظل حالة الركود مستمرة لفترة ليست بالقصيرة، وسينحسر قليلا أو بفارق ملاحظ بروز منشدين جدد، كما سيقتصر البروز الأكبر والنجومية لعددٍ بسيط أو محصور جداً من المنشدين، وسيكون أغلبهم ممن اكتسب النجومية والشهرة في فتراته الذهبية أو قبل مرحلة الركود الأخيرة، ولذا سيكون انتشار النجومية للمنشد بطيئا ومحصورا ضمن منطقة جغرافية محدودة غالبا؛ نظرا لقلة الإنتاج بالعموم، وسيبدأ النشيد بالانتعاش بتفاعل المجتمع التفاعل المطلوب مع وسائل شراء الإنتاجات الفنية الجديدة، عبر المواقع الإلكترونية المتخصصة، وذلك يتطلب ردحا غير قريب من الزمن.

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