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الجنون والعبقرية

هل هنالك خيط رفيع بين العبقرية والجنون؟

Craig Wright, Ph.D

Posted Sep 25, 2020

نحن نربط بين صحة فان جوخ الذهنية المتقلبة وبين السلوك المتطرف، ونحن نعرض تلك السمات على فنه. هل كان فان جوخ يرسم هلوساته؟ وبالمثل هل كان بيتهوفن الغريب الأطوار ونصف المجنون يؤلف ألحانًا لم يكن قادرًا على سماعها؟

إن حالات نادرة قد تساعدنا على فهم مشاكل معقدة، ولكن هل تلك السمات للعباقرة المجانين معبرة بشكل دقيق؟ أم أنه قد تمت المبالغة فيها لأننا نحب القصص المثيرة؟ هل هنالك دليل دامغ للجنون والعبقرية بين العباقرة المبدعين أم أن قليلًا من الخصائص الملاحظة للشخصية هي ما تشكل نظرتنا؟ كما قلت أنا في كتابي الجديد “العادات الخفية للعباقرة”: إن الأمر معقد.

“أنت مجنون وأحمق وتتصرف بلا وعي تمامًا” قال كارليس دودجسون في رواية أليس في بلاد العجائب “لكني سأقول لك سرًا. كل الناس المميزين هم كذلك”. إن التوجه الذي يقول أن العباقرة لا يفصلهم سوى خيط دقيق بينهم وبين المجانين يرجع على الأقل إلى العهد اليوناني القديم، حيث ربط أرسطو بين هذين الاثنين قائلًا: ” ليس هنالك عبقري عظيم من غير لمسةٍ من الجنون”، وحتى نعطي تلك العبارة القديمة سياقها الحديث تذكروا عبارات روبن ويليامس، الذي انتحر عام 2014، والذي قال: “أنت تعطى قدرًا بسيطًا من الجنون، وإذا فقدتها فأنت لا شيء”.

هل العباقرة أكثر عرضة للإصابة بالأمراض العقلية مقارنة بعموم الناس؟ في خضم بحثي لمدة 15 عامًا، والمعروض في كتابي نظرت في حياة 100 شخص عبقري تقريبًا، بدءًا من ألكوت إلى زولا. كان ثلث تلك المجموعة – بمن فيهم مايكل أنجلو ونيوتن وبيتهوفن ولينكولن وتسلا وكوساما وفان جوخ ووولف وهمنغواي وديكنسون وديكنز وتشرشل ورولنج وبلاث وبيكاسو وجون ناش وكاين ويست- قد أظهرت بشكل اعتيادي أو بشكل جزئي شكلًا من المرض العقلي المؤثر. إن الثلث هو رقم عالٍ مقارنة ب 5 إلى 10 % من عموم الناس، والعباقرة لا يمتلكون عادة فقدان الاتزان، لكنْ لديهم استعدادٌ لذلك.

يبدو أن الرسامين هم أكثرعرضة للإصابة مقارنة بالعلماء، حيث أشارت الأبحاث الحديثة إلى أن العلماء يمتلكون الانتشار الأدنى من الاختلالات العقلية (17.8 %زيادة عن المعدل العام لعموم الناس)، وقد يعزى ذلك الثبات النسبي إلى حقيقة امتلاك العلماء للمنهج المنظم ذات الخطوة بخطوة، الذي كثيرًا ما يلعب دورًا في تقرير الحدود الواضحة للاكتشافات العلمية، كي تكون ذات دقة لا لبس فيها في التفسيرات الكمية.

إن معدل الاعتلالات الذهنية ترتفع بشكل دراماتيكي بين الملحنين والسياسيين والرسامين، مع انتشار أعلى يظهر عند المؤلفين ( 46 % ) والشعراء ( 80 % )، ولعل هؤلاء المشخصين بالاعتلالات من المشار إليهم في تلك الحقول كالشعراء والرسامين هي أكثر ملائمةً للناس الذين يعانون من تقلبات نفسية، فلعل حدس أولئك المصابين هو أن تلك التقلبات النفسية هي المنبع الذي يلهمهم إنتاج الإبداع، كما اعتاد فنان الراب كاين ويست القول: “الفن العظيم يأتي من الألم العظيم”.

بالعودة إلى فان جوخ (كانت هنالك مقدمة عدلت عن ترجمتها؛ نظرًا لقساوة المشهد، وتضمنها مشاهد خارج القيم :المترجم) فإن الأطباء قد نشروا أكثر من 100 نظرية لتفسير الوضع المتقلب الذي عانى منه، ومن بين تلك النظريات: الاكتئاب ثنائي القطب وانفصام الشخصية، ومرض الزهري العصبي ومرض صرع الفص الصدغي الناتج من استخدام الأفسنتين، والجلوكوما الحادة مغلقة الزاوية وصفرة الإبصار وداء منيير، بالإضافة إلى ذلك فقد كانت هنالك عوامل بيولوجية قوية في مصير الرسام النهائي، فمن بين 4 أبناء لآنا وثيودورز فان جوخ توفى اثنان منهم في مؤسسات الرعاية العقلية، وانتحر الاثنان الآخران.

في مايو عام 1889 م كان فان جوخ معتادًا على الوجود في سانت ريمي في فرنسا، وخلال السنة التالية أنتج أكثر اللوحات شعبيةً، بما فيها لوحة “القزحية” كما شاهدها في ساحة المحكمة في سانت ريمي، ولوحة ” ليلة النجوم”، وقد رسمها وهو ينظر عبر نافذة المصحة، وكانت لوحته الأخيرة “جذور الشجرة” قد أكملها بعد خروجه من المصحة، وكما قال عنها مؤرخ الفن بيكر: ” إنها واحدة من تلك اللوحات التي تشعر من خلالها بمعاناة فان جوخ من وضعه العقلي”.

هل كان فن فان جوخ المجنون هو نتاج معاناته من وضعه العقلي كما أشير إلى ذلك مسبقًا أم أن المسألة برمتها ترجع إلى النظرية الحديثة للفن؟ فإن الكثير من السمات المميزة في نمط فان جوخ في الرسم– لوحاته الزيتية واختيار ألوان اللوحات- قد تم تفسيره كنظرية فنية في رسائله إلى أخيه ثيو بفترة طويلة قبل تعرض فان جوخ للاعتلال الذهني. كان فان جوخ مدركًا للخيط بين الجنون والصحة العقلية، وكان يعرف عندما كان مجنونًا وعندما لم يكن كذلك، كما كتب إلى أخيه ثيو في عام 1882: “كشخص مريض ليس لك الحرية لتعمل كما يريد الإنسان العادي، وكذلك عندما لا تريد”.

لقد مارس فان جوخ الرسم؛ حتى يبقى في أمان من الجنون. “العمل هو العلاج الوحيد” كما قال في عام 1883. “إذا يكن ذلك يجدي فسينهار المرء”. إن التأرجح بين الجانب الآمن للعباقرة المنتجين وبين المجانين العاجزين جعل فان جوخ يستمر بالرسم حتى لم يعد قادرًا على ذلك، حتى أتى صباح 27 من يوليو 1890 عندما أطلق النار على نفسه، بينما كان يتجول بالحقل المجاور لنهر الواز.

إن كلمات روبن ويليماس مجددًا قد توفر لنا سياقًا عصريًا لفان جوخ وللعديد من الفنانين المضطربين. “سيؤدي بك الحال للوصول للقاع وتنظر للأعلى، وفي بعض المرات ستخرج من ذلك القاع، وبعدها ستعود إليه مجددًا”.
لكن يظل السؤال قائمًا: “هل يشكل الجنون الرؤية الفنية أم أنه يحصل بمعزل عنها؟” هذا هو السؤال.

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