You are currently viewing كيف تؤثر العنصرية على الصحة؟

كيف تؤثر العنصرية على الصحة؟

كيف تؤثر العنصرية على الصحة؟؟

The Bronfenbrenner Center for Translational Research

Posted Jun 04, 2020

العنصرية هي في طليعة الاهتمام القومي في هذا الأسبوع، حزنا على وفاة جورج فلويد على يد ضابط شرطة مينيابوليس، مع تصاعد الشغب والمحتجين في أنحاء البلاد.

مع كون العنف تجاه الأقلية العرقية مشكلة خطيرة فالدلائل تشير إلى أن العنصرية الممنهجة في المجتمع الأمريكي لها تأثيرات أوسع كذلك.

عندما يتولد لدى الدماغ إحساس باحتمالية حصول المواقف العدائية فإنه يهيئ الجسد عن طريقة زيادة ضربات القلب والتنفس وضغط الدم، وردة الفعل هذه ساعدت الإنسان الأول على غريزة الهرب أو المواجهة تجاه الحيوانات المفترسة والأعداء.

إن مواقف التوتر اليومية كتحديات العمل والسلوك السيء للأطفال من الممكن أن تؤدي لنفس التأثيرات الجسدية تلك، حتى مع قلة الاحتمال لتعرضنا لخطر جسدي، ولكن المشكلة هي عندما تتكرر ردة التوتر هذه مرارا وتكرارا، فالأدلة تشير إلى أنها تساهم في مشاكل صحية، مثل: الاكتئاب والقلق والأرق ومشاكل القلب والطفح الجلدي ومشاكل الجهاز الهضمي كأمثلة قليلة من تلك المشاكل.

هنالك أدلة متزايدة الآن توضح أن التمييز العنصري من الممكن أن يولد ردة التوتر تلك، وأن الأقلية العرقية من الممكن أن تتعرض لمثل تلك المشاكل الصحية كنتيجة لذلك. هنالك تحليل أجري ل ١٢١ دراسة منشورة عام 2013 وجدت أن البالغين ذوي الأعمار بين ١٢ و ١٨ سنة ممن أبلغوا عن تعرضهم لمواقف التمييز العنصري هم أكثر تعرضا لمشاكل الصحة الذهنية، مثل: الاكتئاب والقلق مقارنة بمن لم يتعرضوا لذلك، كما أن مراجعة أخرى ل ٦٦ دراسة وجدت أن الشباب السود ممن كانوا مستهدفين للعنصرية كانوا أكثر تعرضا لمشاكل الصحة الذهنية، وأنهم يعيشون حياة ذات مستوى أقل جودة، وهنالك مراجعة ثالثة حددت أصنافا من العنصرية، مع الآثار الصحية لكل منها.

إن الدراسة الرائدة في هذا المجال هي دراسة أنتوني أونج، وهو بروفيسور التنمية البشرية في جامعة كورنيل، والذي أوضح أن التعرض للعنصرية أو سوء المعاملة باستمرار يؤثر على الصحة، عن طريق تناقص الشعور بقيمة الذات، وانعدام الفرص في الشعور بالغاية من الحياة.

يقول أونج: “على الرغم من تزايد الأدلة على أن التعرض المزمن للعنصرية يؤثر على الصحة إلا أن نقص البيانات بخصوص الآليات البيولوجية تجعل من الضروري مواصلة البحث في هذا الموضوع”.

لقد نشر أونج دراسة عام ٢٠١٦م عن أكثر من ٢٠٠ من الشباب السود ممن تم استقصاؤهم ومتابعتهم عبر أكثر من ١٠ سنوات، حيث قام المشاركون بملء استبيان يتعلق بالمعاملة اليومية السيئة، مثل: التعرض للنداء بأسماء سيئة والتهديدات المهينة والتحرش، كما أجابوا عن أسئلة تتعلق بمواقف المعاملة غير العادلة، مثل: عدم تشجيعهم على مواصلة التعليم أو الحصول على قرض، أو إرباكهم من قبل الشرطة.

كما تم إخضاع المشاركين كذلك لفحوصات الدم، للتعرف على ٢٢ من المؤشرات الحيوية للأمراض، مثل: أمراض القلب والسكري والمشاكل العصبية والالتهابات.

بالنهاية كان المشاركون الذين تعرضوا للتمييز أكثر من غيرهم أقل صحة، ويرى أونج إلى أن أولئك كانوا يتعرضون للتمييز بشكل دائم، فحتى المواقف الصغيرة أو البسيطة من سوء المعاملة يؤدي إلى التأثير الجسدي بشكل دائم.

يقول أونج: “نتائجنا تشير إلى أن التأقلم مع التعرض المزمن لسوء المعاملة اليومية سيخلق نمطا جديدا يدمر النظام الجسدي الذي ينظم ردة فعل الجسم تجاه التوتر”.

نشر أونج دراسة أخرى عام ٢٠١٧ ل ١٥٢ طالبا آسيويا أمريكيا من أكملوا استفتاءات يومية متعلقة بالتمييز العرقي اليومي، وعلاقته بمصادر التوتر والمزاج والصحة الجسدية لأسبوعين. اكتشفت الدراسة أن المشاركين الذين تعرضوا لسوء المعاملة – يسميه البعض “الاعتداءات العنصرية الصغرى”- أبلغوا عن نوم غير مريح وفترة نوم قصيرة خلال اليوم التالي.

كما أن المشاركين الذين تعرضوا للوصم بالعار بشكل أكثر -والذي يُعتقَد أنه يؤثر على تفاعل الفرد مع الآخرين- كانوا أكثر تعرضا لنوعية نوم سيئة في تلك الليالي التي تعرضوا فيها لذلك التمييز

يقول أونج: ” أن تكون متيقظا باستمرار للتمييز العنصري المرتبط بالتهديد في البيئة المحيطة بك يحرمك من الحصول على نوم مريح”.

الرسالة المستخلصة هنا هو أن التعرض للتمييز العنصري يؤدي إلى مشاكل صحية، تقلل من جودة المعيشة طوال العمر حتى.

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