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كيف تؤثر الفوارق الاقتصادية علينا نفسيًا؟

كيف تؤثر الفوارق الاقتصادية علينا نفسيًا؟؟

Posted Mar 10, 2020

Joseph Heffner and Oriel Feldman Hall  Ph. D

دائمًا ما كانت الفوارق الاقتصادية عالية في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية. هنالك من يدعي أن عقودًا من التشريعات الممنهجة هي التي أدت إلى أن تملك أغنى ثلاث عائلات أكثر مما يملكه نصف المجتمع في الدولة.

هذا الاتجاه غير منعكس في باقي الدول المتقدمة اقتصاديًا، فمن بين 36 دولة تحتل الولايات المتحدة المركز الأخير بالنسبة للمساواة الاقتصادية، وكنتيجة لذلك انحدرنا لأدنى مستويات العدالة الاقتصادية، وللمرة الأولى في تاريخ الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية تدفع الطبقة العاملة ضرائب أعلى مما يدفعه أصحاب المليارات.

إن التأثيرات المنعكسة جراء غياب العدالة الاقتصادية معروفة، فالفوارق الاقتصادية العالية ترتبط مع عدد لا يحصى من المشاكل الصحية والاجتماعية، بما فيها البدانة والأمراض العقلية وانخفاض العمر المتوقع ومعدلات الجريمة المرتفعة، كما أن المنتدى الاقتصادي العالمي وضع الفوارق الاقتصادية كأحد أكثر الاتجاهات أهمية، التي قادت المخاطر العالمية مثل البطالة والتغييرات الاجتماعية، ورغم ذلك أظهر استفتاء حديث أن أقل من نصف الأمريكان لا يرون أن غياب العدالة الاقتصادية مشكلة خطيرة. لماذا لا يهتم الناس؟!!

لقد تصارع علماء السياسة والاقتصاديون والفلاسفة مع هذه المفارقة لعقود، وجواب هذا السؤال -على الأقل ولو جزئيا- يمكن تفسيره عن طريق فهم كيف يرى الناس الفوارق الاقتصادية في حياتهم اليومية، ونحن هنا لنعرض جانبًا واحدًا من التفسير: التحليل النفسي للفوارق الاقتصادية الدائمة كنظام غير عادل.  

الناس يهتمون بالفوارق الاقتصادية المحلية:

في وقت نقضي فيه الكثير والكثير من الوقت إلكترونيًا فمن السهل أن نقارن أنفسنا بالآخرين، ومع ذلك ليست كل المقارنات متساوية، فقد لا أهتم كثيرًا بأحد المشاهير الذي اشترى منزلًا بمئات الملايين أكثر من اهتمامنا بجارنا الذي ينشر صورًا لإجازته الفخمة في جزر البهاماس، وهذا يحصل بسبب أن المقارنة الاجتماعية تكون بارزة بالتحديد عندما تكون مع آخرين في نفس المجتمع. إن المقارنة مع من يشبهوننا يمكن لها أن تغير سلوكنا بشكل جذري.

في إحدى الدراسات الإبداعية اختبر الباحثون كيف أن فوز الجار باليانصيب يغير من السلوك الاقتصادي للآخرين، فقد أخذوا بيانات الرمز البريدي الهولندي، واستعانوا بنظام يختار الرمز البريدي عشوائيًا، ووزعوا سيارات BMW جديدة على جميع المشاركين في اليانصيب في تلك المنطقة.

خلقت تلك التجربة وضعًا جديدًا بالنسبة لغير المشتركين في اليانصيب، حيث برز لديهم المقارنة الاجتماعية مع الجيران الذين فازوا بسيارة BMW الجديدة، حيث كان الشعور بمواكبة الجيران قويًا، فأصبح غير المشتركين في اليانصيب الذين يجاورون الفائزين به أكثر توجهًا لشراء سيارة جديدة في غضون 6 شهور بعد مسابقة اليانصيب، مقارنة بأولئك الذين لم يكونوا يعيشون بجوار الفائزين باليانصيب.

الفوارق الاقتصادية المرئية تديم الآثار العكسية:

إن الدراسة الأخيرة تكشف أن إخفاء الفارق الاقتصادي (مثل: عدم معرفتك كم يجني زملاؤك من المال) تسمح للتعاون أن ينتعش، ولكننا نعيش في عالم صارخ بالفوارق الاقتصادية المرئية.  

كي نشرح كيف تغير الفوارق الاقتصادية المرئية من سلوك الناس قام باحثون في جامعة ييل بإنشاء مجتمعات صغرى لأشخاص من مختلف الدرجات الاقتصادية والرفاهية الظاهرة. عندما علم المشاركون الأغنياء أن جيرانهم من الفقراء أصبحوا أقل تعاونًا معهم، واختار المشاركون الأغنياء اللعب مع شركاء أغنياء كذلك، مؤدية إلى سيناريو “الأغنياء يزدادون غنىً، والفقراء يزدادون فقرًا”. في المقابل عندما لا تكون الرفاهية ظاهرة والفوارق الاقتصادية غير معروفة فإن التعاون يزدهر.

هذه التجارب المختبرية تتوصل إلى تناقض في الأشخاص، فعوضًا عن إعادة التوازن في المقاييس يستغل الأغنياء معرفتهم بأن الآخرين أقل منهم في استمرارية الفوارق الاقتصادية مع الآخرين، ولربما ذلك في جانب ما بسبب أن الفقراء يعتقدون أنهم يستحقون اهتمامًا أقل.

الفوارق الاقتصادية تزيد من السلوك المحفوف بالمخاطر:

على الرغم أن المقارنات الاجتماعية مع الآخرين في مجتمعك مؤثرة في تغيير سلوكنا كمستهلكين فإن تلك المقارنات قد تدفع نحو السلوكيات الضارة والمحفوفة بالمخاطر.

تساءل باحثون في جامعة شمال كارولينا كيف يمكن أن يؤثر مقارنة أنفسنا باستمرار مع أكثر الناس ثراء على قدرات اتخاذ القرارات لدى الناس. في إحدى الدراسات التجريبية طلبوا من المبحوثين أن يقوموا بالمراهنة، لكن كل مراهنة ستختلف في قيمتها ومخاطرها ( مثل: هنالك فرصة بنسبة 90 % للفوز بـ 23 سنتًا أو فرصة 5 % للفوز بـ 5 دولارات ).

قسم الباحثون المشاركين إلى مجموعتين: مجموعة أُخْبِرَتْ أن المشاركين السابقين امتلكوا 51 سنتًا في المتوسط، وكان توزيع ما فازوا به متساويًا، بينما أخبرت المجموعة الثانية أن المشاركين السابقية كسبوا في المتوسط 51 سنتًا، ولكن كان توزيع المكاسب بينهم غير متساوٍ بدرجة عالية.

عندما كان توزيع المكاسب بين المشاركين السابقين غير متساو خاطرت المجموعة الحالية بشكل أكبر مفترضين مسبقًا أن عليهم كسب أكبر قدر ممكن من المكاسب. هذه العلاقة بين غياب المساواة وبين الإقدام على المخاطر منعكسة كذلك في عالمنا الواقعي، فإن الناس الذين يعيشون في مدن ذات فوارق اقتصادية أكبر تحفز ارتكاب السلوكيات المحفوفة بالمخاطر.  

إن ارتفاع الفوارق الاقتصادية تحفز الناس لاتخاذ سلوكيات خطيرة في محاولتهم للوصول للقمة، لكن هذا قد يساهم في ثبات نظام الفوارق الاقتصادية بشكل مستمر. باختبار الآثار النفسية للفوارق الاقتصادية يمكننا البدء بفهم الدوافع العميقة التي تسهم في بقاء الفوارق الاقتصادية، ليتحول السؤال ليكون: هل سيصبح بإمكاننا فعل شيء تجاه ذلك؟؟

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