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لماذا لا نتوقف عن مشاهدة الأخبار؟

لماذا لا نتوقف عن مشاهدة الأخبار؟؟

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Posted Apr 30, 2020

في الأشهر الأخيرة وقع الناس في مختلف أرجاء العالم تحت نوع آخر من طغيان المعلومات، وسط تغيرات بيولوجية ونفسية بسبب الجائحة، حيث أصبح كل واحد منا فجأةً غير قادر على منع تركيز عينه على الشاشات، فنحن نتابع التطورات الجديدة ونقرأ النظريات ونستمع للتفسيرات ونناقش التقارير الحديثة، ونحن نتلقى ذلك بلغات عديدة، ومن خلال مناطق زمنية مختلفة، كل ذلك ونحن نتذمر من أن تعطشنا للأخبار يجعلنا في حالة بائسة.

ما هي الآليات التي تدفعنا للنهم والتعطش للمعلومات؟

طبقًا لعالمة الأعصاب تالي شاروت فإننا نسعى للأخبار بسبب ما نتوقع أنها ستحققه لنا، أكثر مما تحققه لنا بالفعل في أرض الواقع، وكل ذلك مرتبط بثلاثة دوافع تحفز سعينا خلف المعلومات: المنفعة والوعي والعاطفة.

لماذا يسعى الناس خلف الأخبار؟

أظهر بحثنا أن هنالك ثلاثة محفزات مختلفة لتفسير سعي الناس خلف الأخبار. الأول هو الفائدة الوسيطة: هل من الممكن أن تساعدني هذه المعلومات؟؟ فمع الجائحة قد تفكر وتقول: ” إذا حصلت على المزيد من المعلومات فيمكنني التخطيط بشكل أفضل وأحمي نفسي أكثر”.

الدافع الثاني هي الفائدة المعرفية: هل يمكنني استخدام هذه المعلومات لأفهم العالم بشكل أفضل؟ ففي ظروفنا الحالية قد تكون الفائدة المعرفية لربما أحد الوظائف الرئيسة للأخبار، فهنالك الكثير من الضبابية، ونحن نحاول تقليل تلك الضبابية بالحصول على المزيد من المعلومات، على الرغم أنني أظن أن تلك المعلومات التي نحصل عليها قد تقودنا إلى مزيد من الحيرة والشك، فعلى سبيل المثال: الحسابات المتناقضة التي نسمعها بخصوص الحصول على اللقاح ضد الفيروس، لذا فإن المزيد من المعلومات قد يكون سلبيا ويؤثر على إدراكنا.

الدافع الثالث هو التأثير: هل تجعلني هذه المعلومات أشعر بمشاعر محددة؟؟ على سبيل المثال: قد تشاهد الأخبار على أمل سماعك لخبر جيد، كلقاح جديد أو تقدم في صراعنا مع الفيروس، فنحن حتى مع كوننا محبطين فإننا نواصل الحصول على الأخبار، بسبب أنا نتأمل في النهاية أن نتلقى أخبارًا جيدةً، هناك حيث يحصل ” التفاؤل المتحيز”.

هل المعرفة دائمًا أفضل من عدمها؟

في العلوم الاقتصادية وأبحاث علم الأعصاب المبكرة كان هنالك افتراض قديم أن المعرفة دائمًا أفضل من عدمها، ولكني لا أظن أن ذلك صحيح، فكل الدوافع الثلاثة قد تكون سلبية، فقد تتوقع أن المعلومات ستكون سلبية، وغير مفيدة ولديها تأثيرات غير إيجابية على أفعالك، حينها ستكون قيمة المعلومات سلبية؛ وبسبب ذلك قد ترغب في تجنب الأخبار. في الحقيقة فإن تجنب الناس للأخبار يعطينا المفتاح للقول: إن كثرة الأخبار ليست دائمًا جيدة للدماغ، فإذا توقعت أن الأخبار ستكون سلبية فإن الدماغ لن يصدر ردة فعل على أنها مكافأة، وذلك سيسبب التثبيط ويقودك إلى عدم تحري الأخبار، بل تجنبها.

هل يمكن أن تكون طريقة تحرينا للأخبار مدخلًا لصحتنا الذهنية؟؟

أبحاثنا الحالية تظهر أن الأشخاص أكثر احتمالا لتتبع المعلومات عندما يجدونها مفيدة أو إيجابية أو متعلقة بشيء يفكرون به. على المستوى الفردي فالأشخاص من الممكن تصنيفهم إلى مجموعات بناءً على الدافع الذي يحفزهم لتحري المعلومات. بعض الناس مغمورون بدافع التأثير، وآخرون بدافع الفعل، وآخرون بدافع المعرفة، وذلك يقودنا إلى القول أن تلك المجموعات تختلف فيما بينها بخصوص تأثيرات الصحة الذهنية. إن الأشخاص الأكثر مرونة بالنسبة لعلم النفس المرضي هم الذين يتابعون المعلومات بدافع المعرفة. بعبارة أخرى، هم الأشخاص المدفوعون برغبة فهم العالم المحيط من حولهم، وفي المتوسط فالمجموعة التي تنتمي لها ستكون ثابتة بمرور الوقت، لكن الناس يتغيرون والأوضاع تكون مؤثرة. إذا ما وضعتك تحت ظروف معينة أو غيرتُ لديك وضعك المؤثر فقد يتغير دافع تحري الأخبار لديك.

لماذا يميل العديد منا للتفاؤل المتحيز؟؟

التفاؤل المتحيز هو توقعاتنا بخصوص المستقبل، حيث نتوقع أشياء معينة أن تكون بشكل أفضل مما هي عليه في الحقيقة. تظهر الأبحاث أن التفاؤل المتحيز يحفز الدافعية، ويحمي صحتنا الذهنية والجسدية. أظهرت دراسة منشورة في مجلة “الطبيعة” قبل عدة سنوات أن المجتمع ينمي في نفسه التفاؤل عوضا عن التشاؤم ما لم يكن في بيئة خطرة، وامتلاك الناس لهذا التحيز يعني أنهم لا يتوقعون أشياء إيجابية وحسب، لكنهم أيضأ يعتقدون أن بإمكانهم فعل أشياء ليحموا بها أنفسهم، فمع الظروف الحالية على سبيل المثال يعتقد الناس أنهم أقل احتمالا للإصابة بالفيروس؛ بسبب أنهم يظنون أن لديهم وتحكما وسيطرة على ذلك. إلى حد ما ذلك صحيح، فعندما نبقى في منازلنا فإننا نحمي أنفسنا.

التفاؤل المتحيز يحفز الدافعية، فإذا كنت تعتقد أنك ستؤدي بشكل أفضل فإنك أكثر احتمالا لأن تبذل جهدًا أكبر فيما تفعل، وما وجدناه في بحثنا هو أنك إذا وضعت الناس تحت خطر يزيد من نسبة التوتر لديهم فإن هنالك تغيرا سريعا في انتقال الناس من المعلومات الإيجابية للمعلومات السلبية، مما يؤدي إلى تضاؤل التفاؤل المتحيز، وما يميز التفاؤل المتحيز أنه مرن، وذلك بناء على التكيف مع البيئة.

كيف نبقى متفائلين خلال الأوقات الصعبة؟   

أعتقد أن التوقع والقوة هي مفاتيح للمحافظة على أنفسنا. إنها ضرورية لتحظى بشيء يجعلك تنظر للأمام. ثانيًا اعمل على أن تمتلك حس القوة أو التحكم بظروفك. بإمكانك فعل ذلك لتبدأ مشروعا جديدًا أو لتتلقى الأخبار بشكل أقل. في دراسة حديثة وجدنا أن الأشخاص الذين يملكون تحكما أكبر هم أكثر تفاؤلًا، وزيادة على ذلك فالقوة والتفاؤل هي عناصر حماية. الناس مع حس تحكم عال يشعرون بانخفاض أقل من السعادة في حياتهم.

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